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Japan Awakened Asia—A Miracle of the 20th Century The Road to the Independence of India

By Probir Bikash Sarker,

Chapter 5 Chandra Bose and the Indian National Army

Chandra Bose, who moved Japan
Chandra Bose arrived in Japan on May 16, 1943, via dangerous voyage aboard submarines from Germany. After his arrival, on June 10, Bose met Prime Minister Tojo Hideki. The prime minister was almost instantly charmed by Chandra Bose’s humanity and firm determination toward the independence of India. On June 20, Chandra Bose’s visit to Japan was officially announced and morning-edition newspapers posted Bose’s message to the country. After the sad news of Secretary of the Navy Yamamoto Isoroku’s death in action in the past May and the disadvantageous battle conditions, the Japanese people were beginning to realize that Japan was losing the war. In such an atmosphere, Chandra Bose’s words were meant to make Japan recognize the significance of the Greater East Asian War:

“Japan was the first powerful country in East Asia that tried to stop the current of invasion washing Asia in the 19th century. The victory of Japan over Russia in 1905 was the starting point for Asia and fanatically welcomed by the Indian public. For Asian restoration, a powerful Japan is most needed now at present as it was in the past. It is true that Indian people’s view of Japan was somewhat worsened by the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War. However, now that the Greater East Asian War broke out and the situation has changed, Japan is fighting against the enemy of India, and Chongqing [China’s Government at that time] joins the American and British side. On top of that, Chiang Kai-shek is fully supporting the continuation of the British rule over Burma and India. The Indian public show not the least interest in ideological struggle for independence, but they are whole-heartedly yearning for political and economical liberation of India. Naturally, then, all powers that support Indian independence are all Indian friends.”
Revolutionary Chandra Bose, written by Inagaki Takeshi, published by Shincho-sha.

Chandra Bose admired Japan’s contribution to Asia and strongly criticized the fact that Chiang Kai-shek was practically a puppet of Britain and the United States. At the same time, he clearly stated that the aim of the Indian National Army was strictly the independence of India. On July 4, Chandra Bose succeeded Behari Bose as the new leader of the Indian National Army in Singapore and announced a plan to establish the Provisional Government of Free India, emphasizing that for liberty and independence, it was utmost necessary to fight resolutely, in defiance of dangerous forced march, hunger or even death. His speech was received with enthusiastic applause by the Indian National Army soldiers. And on July 5, Prime Minister Tojo landed in Singapore via Manila and inspected the INA troops. On that occasion, Chandra Bose gave the legendary address, “Chalo Delhi (March to Delhi)!” The slogan of “Chalo Delhi” later became the military song of the Indian National Army:

“Soldiers and friends, let us make ‘Chalo Delhi’ our slogan. I do not know how many of us will survive to look up at the sun of liberty. However, I do know that we will win the final victory and our mission shall never end until the surviving heroes make a victory march to Red Fort, Delhi.”
Revolutionary Chandra Bose, written by Inagaki Takeshi, published by Shincho-sha.

Prime Minister Tojo was deeply moved by this speech and after Chandra Bose spoke, Prime Minister Tojo stated that Japan had no territorial ambition against India and promised that Japan would totally support India’s independence with all her might. We cannot basically talk about the support Japan gave India for its fight for independence from the time of the ensuing Greater East Asian Conference to the Battle of Imphal, without mentioning the deep sympathy Prime Minister Tojo felt toward Chandra Bose. Certainly, there are many views within Japan when it comes to evaluating Prime Minister Tojo, but no one can deny his contribution to the realization of the Indian independence.

And Chandra Bose newly organized a women’s corps within the Indian National Army. The Japanese side did not understand why he had women without any military training join the army. Probably, Chandra Bose wanted to show that this independence war was the entire Indian people’s will, whether men or women, and he also wanted to eliminate as much as possible the deep-rooted Indian custom of dominance of men over women and discouragingly negative regard for women’s social activities. In addition, Chandra Bose strongly requested that when the Indian National Army marched into India, the Indian National Army should march foremost and independently from the Japanese Army. Chandra Bose hopefully thought that in that manner, it would be clearly proven that the Indian National Army was not the puppet of the Japanese Army.

Determination toward Indian independence expressed during the Greater East Asian Conference
On another occasion, Chandra Bose emphasized again that the Indian National Army was an independent army and that the cooperation with Japan was of significance in terms of the world history: he attended the Greater East Asian Conference held in Tokyo on November 5, 1943, as a delegate from the provisional Government of Free India and made a speech.

The Greater East Asian Conference was attended by Wang Jingwei, President of the Republic of China (Nanjing), Zhang Jinghui, Prime Minister of the Empire of Manchuria, Jose P. Laurel, President of the Republic of the Philippines, Ba Maw, Head of State and Prime Minister of the State of Burma and Wan Waithayakon, Prince and Envoy from the Kingdom of Thailand. After Prime Minister Tojo Hideki made an opening address, the other participants rose to the stage and spoke. The most powerful and

Participating leaders in the Greater East Asian Conference, Prime Minister Tojo
at the center, Chandra Bose at the far right

profound speech was given by Chandra Bose from Azad Hind (Provisional Government of Free India).
First, Prime Minister Tojo definitively stated in his opening address, after criticizing Anglo-American aggressive attitudes against Asia and the world, that international justice and world peace in the Anglo-American terms is nothing but colonial exploitation of Asia by Europe and the United States after all:

The British Empire for several centuries in the past obtained the vast territories stretching all over the earth by aggression and conquer and in order to maintain their advantageous status, they have made various countries compete and conflict with one another throughout the world. The United States, on the other hand, taking advantage of this incessantly tumultuous situations in Europe, not only established the sovereignty over the American continent, but also spread its fangs over the Pacific and Asia after the Spanish-American War and has been aspiring to finally conquer the world in alliance with the British Empire since World War I. After World War II broke out, the United States took a further leap forward, reaching to North Africa, West Africa, the Atlantic, Australia, Near East and India, aiming to take the place of the British Empire.

The Anglo-American favorite phrase of the establishment of international justice and assurance of world peace is nothing short of the sustenance of their own selfish order through aggravating conflicts and struggles among Asian countries and permanently continuing colonial exploitation in Asia. Looking at such Anglo-American behaviors in Asia, we must say that they invade politically, exploit economically and behind the beautiful name of education and culture, they make Asian peoples lose their ethnicity and conflict with each other to fulfill their own aspiration. Thus, peoples in Asian countries have constantly had their existence threatened, their peace broken, and their living oppressed and kept from making natural development, to this day.
[Address given by Tojo Hideki at the Greater East Asian Conference]

Tojo went on to state that the Greater East Asian War was now entering a new stage of establishing a new order for mutual prosperity by and among the Asian peoples:

As soon as the Greater East Asian War commenced, the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy fought wisely and gallantly and wiped out the Anglo-American invaders throughout the East Asia within less than six months. This is a decisive battle to win or lose for the peoples of the Greater East Asia. By winning this battle, the peoples of the Greater East Asia can secure eternally their existence on this great earth of East Asia and enjoy co-prosperity. The successful accomplishment of the Greater East Asian War means the firm foundation for the new order of the Greater East Asia. [Omitted]

The order of co-existence and co-prosperity in the Greater East Asia is based on the intrinsic moral spirit of the Greater East Asia which in this respect is fundamentally different from the old order based on the Anglo-American attitudes of undauntedly committing wrong-doing, deception or exploitation for their own prosperity.

The countries of the Greater East Asia respect each other’s sovereignty and independence, forming a friendly sphere, as a whole. No friendship can be found anywhere where one uses another as a mere means for one’s own sake.
[Tojo Hideki’s address at the Greater East Asian Conference]

However, in India, then, the cruel British rule of oppression continued and particularly at that time, more than three million people were starved to death in the Bengal district. This was, indeed, a human-caused disaster by the British rule. And then, led by Chandra Bose, the Indian National Army and the Provisional Government of Free India were born, holding the flag of Indian independence.

How should we regard the way the British-American side treats India? Now, the British oppression is getting worse and worse by the day and by the month. [Omitted] The four hundred million Indian people are in constant agonies beyond words. Especially, the catastrophe of the recent, unprecedentedly disastrous famine is something that even the British-American side cannot overlook.

Thus, in India, firm-willed patriots are all thrown into prison while innocent people are all starving and crying. This is truly a tragedy for the entire world and a lament to all humankind. We, peoples of the Greater East Asia can never leave this situation as it is. Time has come and filled with righteous indignation, Subhas Chandra Bose rose and in response to his call, the Indian people both at home and abroad equally stood up. Now, the Provisional Government of India was established and the foundation for Indian independence has been completed. The Imperial Japan promised domestically and internationally to provide every cooperation and support for the independence of India.
[Tojo Hideki’s address at the Greater East Asian Conference]

And in response to Prime Minister Tojo’s call, Chandra Bose stated at the Greater East Asian Conference his determination toward Indian independence:

I am sure that we of the Provisional Government of Azad Hind and all those who under the leadership of our Government will launch the last struggle against Anglo-American imperialism, will now go to war against our sworn enemy with the consciousness that behind us stands not only the invincible might of Nippon, but also the united will and grim determination of the emancipated nations of East Asia.
For India, there is no other path, but the path of uncompromising struggle against British imperialism. Even if it were possible for other nations to think of compromising with England, for the Indian people, at least, it is out of the question. Compromising with Britain means to compromise with slavery and we are determined not to compromise with slavery any more.

I, therefore, want to assure Your Excellencies, that come what may, no matter how long and hard the struggle may be, no matter what the suffering and the sacrifice involved may prove to be, we are determined to fight to the bitter end, being fully confident of our final victory.
I do not know how many of the members of our National Army will survive the coming war, but that is of no consequence to us. Whether we individually live or die, whether we survive the war and live to see India free or not, what is of consequence is the fact that India shall be free, that Anglo-American imperialism shall be wiped out of India, and the menace that now hangs over the whole of East Asia will be removed, once and for all.
[Chandra Bose’s address at the Greater East Asian Conference]

And Chandra Bose spoke in appreciation that the Greater East Asian War was the reenactment of the ideal of “Asia is one” dreamt of by Okakura Tenshin and that the Greater East Asian Declaration adopted at the conference was its political statement. To Bose, the Greater East Asian Conference was not at all a conference of puppet states of Japan as certain historians assert, but a historical, epoch-making conference leading to the independence of Asian countries, although with the help of Japan, and paving a way to the liberation of all the peoples under oppression in the entire world. The principles mentioned in the Joint Declaration of the Greater East Asian Conference, which was unanimously adopted on November 6, and Chandra Bose’s speech praising the declaration were:

⦁ The countries of Greater East Asia through mutual cooperation will ensure the stability of their region and construct an order of common prosperity and well-being based upon justice.
⦁ The countries of Greater East Asia will ensure the fraternity of nations in their region, by respecting one another’s sovereignty and independence and practicing mutual assistance and amity.
⦁ The countries of the Greater East Asia by respecting one another’s traditions and developing the creative faculties of each race, will enhance the culture and civilization of Greater East Asia.
⦁ The countries of Greater East Asia will endeavor to accelerate their economic development through close cooperation upon a basis of reciprocity and to promote thereby the general prosperity of their region.
⦁ The countries of Greater East Asia will cultivate friendly relations with all the countries of the world, and work for the abolition of racial discrimination, the promotion of cultural intercourse and the opening of resources throughout the world, and contribute thereby to the progress of mankind.
[The Greater East Asia Joint Declaration]

Your Excellencies, in setting out to create a new order based on the sublime principles of justice, national sovereignty, reciprocity, and mutual aid and assistance, you are undertaking a task which is the noblest that the human mind can conceive. I pray to God that your noble efforts may be crowned with success. I pray to God that the dreams of Okakura Kakuzo and Sun Yat-sen may be translated into reality. And I pray to God that this Joint Declaration which this historic Assembly has unanimously adopted this afternoon may prove to be a charter for the nations of East Asia and, what is more, a charter for the suppressed nations of the whole world. [Omitted]

[Omitted] I may assure Your Excellency, that if you and your distinguished colleagues succeed in this mission, as I hope, I trust, and I believe, you will – your names will go down in history not merely as the makers of a new Asia, but as the makers and the architects of a new word.
[Chandra Bose’s address at the Greater East Asian Conference]

The Greater East Asian War, which was the Greater East Asia Itself
In order to show that Japan’s promise was not an empty one, Prime Minister Tojo designated occupied Andaman Islands and Nicobar Islands as the territories of the Provisional Government of Free India. In addition, on November 14 at Hibiya Public Hall, Chandra Bose gave an address titled “The Path to Independent India”, which was then published and sold as a booklet by Taisei Yokusan-kai Kou-a honbu (Prosperous Asian Headquarters of Imperial Rule Assistance Association). In this address, Chandra Bose spoke of the process toward gaining the Indian independence in a more historic and general manner. In the introduction of this booklet, written by Ohkawa Shumei, Ohkawa accepted Chandra Bose’s thought as a Japanese intellectual at that time and responded to it:

The new chapter of world history, having been opened by Japan’s victory in the Russo-Japanese War, moved on to the right direction and time has now come for all countries in Asia to raise their flag of liberty. This flag is already flying in the skies over Rangoon and Manila, and about to fly over Delhi. The national flag of Free India is moving forward from Singapore to Burma and finally when the flag streams over the roof of the Governor-General’s Office standing high in Delhi, the historical significance of the Greater East Asian War will be culminated. Listening to honorable bearer of this dignified flag, His Excellency Mr. Chandra Bose, his voice filled with reason, courage, and assurance, we are overwhelmed by boundless joy to feel confident of Free India’s final victory.
Now, the Greater East Asian War has become the Greater East Asian War for the Greater East Asia itself, not the Greater East Asian War for Japan. The British-American enemy is fighting back fiercely like a pitiless demon, aiming to enslave the liberated peoples again and to drag the hard-won paradise of co-prosperity and co-existence back to the cruel hell of exploitation. The battle is being fought in the scale and fierceness that human has never experienced before.
[Introduction by Ohkawa Shumei to The Path to Independent India, written by Subhas Chandra Bose, edited by Taisei Yokusan-kai koa honbu]

Thus, Ohkawa clearly stated that the Greater East Asian War was fought not for Japan but for the entire Asia and defined the Greater East Asian War as the battle of Asian peoples aiming to be independent from the colonial rule against Europe and America aiming to maintain the colonial regime, and not the struggle of fascism versus democracy. To compare Hitler’s Nazi Germany that would not help Chandra Bose with Japan trying to march into India with the Indian soldiers, evidently Ohkawa’s view of the Greater East Asian War was perfectly correct. While Nazi Germany’s war in Europe aimed to rule over each country and people and sometimes to enslave specific races regarded as “inferior,” at least, the Japanese Army in the Greater East Asian War realized the independence of the colonized regions.

As widely known, there are three great leaders in India. Mahatma Gandhi, Nehru, and His Excellency Bose. Mahatma Gandhi is fighting against Britain, solely with the power of the soul even today. However, it is absolutely impossible to beat Britain with the power of the soul only. In fact, against Gandhi’s protest by fasting for three weeks, Britain did not make the least concession. Nehru is fighting against Britain with the power of the word. However, no matter what reasonable and passionate speeches and sentences Nehru delivered, his verbal weapons cannot change the ironclad rule of India by Britain a bit. For India to truly win liberty and independence, India must use the power of the sword, in addition to the power of the soul. Fortunately, the third leader His Excellency Bose has risen, taking up the sword. His Excellency Bose fully understands the power of the sword and now firmly allying with us is about to march toward Delhi, leading the newly formed Indian National Army.
[Introduction by Ohkawa Shumei to The Path to Independent India, written by Subhas Chandra Bose, edited by Taisei Yokusan-kai koa honbu]

Chandra Bose stated the same recognition as Ohkawa’s at the lecture he gave on November 14, 1943, at Hibiya Public Hall:

The most fundamental cause of this War can be found in the fact that a handful of countries insatiably seek to maintain what they have obtained through unlawful means and further gain more and more. The most outstanding of these few countries are Britain and the United States.[Omitted]

Both the United States and Britain busily attempt to spread the wrong idea that Japan and Germany are fascist and imperialist and that therefore it is for the sake of the whole mankind to fight against these emerging new countries. Many people have been confused by this evil propaganda coming from our enemies, the United States and Britain. So have the Indian people. [Omitted]

However, I have never been puzzled by such propaganda myself. From the very beginning, I have been advocating that a serious battle will inevitably occur between the countries trying to maintain the status quo and those trying to establish a new order and that India should heartily cooperate with the country representing the new order. That is because for India the status quo means to remain in the status of a British colony forever and to be kept in slavery. That is why I have pointed out that their evil propaganda against fascism and imperialism is a mere attempt to camouflage the battle between the status quo and the new order. [Omitted]

I am confident that we can win liberty only through taking up arms and shedding blood and I have never once vowed to keep the passive resistance to the end. In this respect, I differ from the Honorable Mahatma Gandhi and our view is well understood by Gandhi and the Indian general public. Fortunately, we have the Indian National Army. And behind us stands the strong support of powerful Japan equipped with the ever-winning and never-losing scheme.
And so, though we are fully aware of the magnitude of our work, we will accept the challenge of the battle, with deep confidence in our victory.
[Introduction by Ohkawa Shumei, written by Chandra Bose, The Path to the Indian Independence, edited by Taisei Yokusan-kai, koa sohonbu.]

The failure of the Battle of Imphal and the death of Bose
Chandra Bose wanted the Indian National Army to lead the march into India at any moment. In reality, however, although 6, 000 troops of the Indian National Army fought in the Battle of Imphal, the operation itself turned out to be a total failure, with casualties of 400 deaths in action out of the 6,000, 1,500 deaths by hunger or illness and 800 soldiers were too weak to move and became prisoners of war. There were many missing in action, and only 2,600 returned safe, 2,000 out of whom were seriously injured or ill and needed to be immediately hospitalized. The military problem and the dire reality of the battleground where deaths by starvation or illness outnumbered deaths in action will not be talked about here. The leaders of the Indian National Army tried to resolutely remain as close to homeland India as possible or within India just crossing the national border and fought there. Chandra Bose solely wanted to be sent to the very war front. Even after the failure in the Battle of Imphal became inevitable, Chandra Bose strongly insisted that they should continue fighting and never leave the Burma-India border even if the Japanese Army retreated, which he believed would send an encouraging message to his Indian people. But his wish was not accepted.

Amid the failure in the battle and the ensuing disastrous situation, the British Army was about to invade Burma. Chandra Bose gathered the INA leaders around him and told them his determination to fight to the end, together with the Japanese Army:

In such adverse circumstances, some may doubt what sense it will make to keep cooperating with the Japanese Army, shoulder to shoulder, any longer. However, if we are to betray the Japanese Army now, we will be blamed for having been a mere fair-weather friend to the Japanese Army.
[Revolutionary Chandra Bose, written by Inagaki Takeshi, published by Shincho-sha]

And Chandra Bose continued to state that even if the Indian National Army was defeated militarily, their fighting was sure to be justified politically and ideologically. In July 1944, Chandra Bose stated during a radio broadcast of the Rangoon Radio Broadcast for domestic Indian listeners, titled “To Reverend Gandhi, our national father”:

While in East Asia, I visited China and came to learn more closely about the Chinese issue. The Chongqing Government is working autocratically. Personally, I do not disagree to autocracy having a justifiable idea. However, the autocratic Chongqing Government is clearly under the American influence. Unfortunately, the Britain and the United States have been successful in making the Chongqing Government leaders believe that if Japan is to lose the war, China will become the leading power in Asia. In fact, however, if Japan should lose the war, China would be under the American control, which is tragic to China and the whole of Asia.

[Omitted] I understand the propaganda operation by the Chongqing Government is under way in India and Indian people came to sympathize with China’s propaganda. However, the Chongqing Government now liable for Wall Street and Lombard Street will no longer deserve the Indian people’s sympathy after Japan set up a new China policy.
Indian Independence Fighters and the Japanese People, edited and written by Hara Yoshiaki, published by Tenden-sha.

Chandra Bose continued to state that the Chiang Kai-shek Government teaming up with Britain and the United States had no intention to support the independence of India and that the Chiang Kai-shek Government propagating the Indian National Army as a puppet of Japan and Japan’s war as an act of invasion was the very puppet of Britain and the United States, adding that Japan’s defeat in the war would only lead to the strengthened Anglo-American control over Asia. In April 1945, the Japanese Army and the Indian National Army defending Burma finally fell and were obliged to retreat from Rangoon. Chandra Bose declared that he would walk on to the end with the Indian National Army, including the women’s corps whose formation he himself had ordered and absolutely refused to escape to safety and desert his men and women.

Retreating to Bangkok and further to Saigon, Chandra Bose tried to fight, leading the remaining Indian National Army. And finally, the day of Japan’s defeat came on August 15.

Chandra Bose still wanted to fight against Britain and with a plan to exile himself in the Soviet Union in mind, he flew from Saigon to Taiwan on August 17. On August 18, he took off again, this time, for Manchuria. But immediately after takeoff, the plane overloaded with men and resources for war suffered an accident. Bose was covered with gasoline and fire all over the body. All on board desperately tried to extinguish the fire and rescued Bose and carried him to hospital, in vain. Reportedly, Chandra Bose died at the hospital at the age of 48.

Bose’s ashes were buried at Renko-ji Temple, Suginami, Tokyo and his grave sits there to this day. Seventy-five years after the War ended, on August 18, a ceremonial service in memory of Chandra Bose is held annually at Renko-ji Temple, attended by Japanese, Indian and Bangladeshi admirers. On the other hand, there is a theory that no such airplane accident occurred at Matsuyama airport in Taipei, where the accident reportedly took place. Mystery also surrounds Bose’s death and his remains. A news source reported that Bose’s bereaved family has been asking for DNA testing, which has not yet been fulfilled.

However, the Indian National Army, which Chandra Bose had left, did carry out “the march to Delhi,” which they could not in the battleground, in another way.

Due to Japan’s defeat in the war, the nearly 20,000 strong Indian National Army at that time surrendered. First, Britain tried to put three leaders of the Indian National Army, Colonel Sha Nawaz Khan, Colonel Prem Kumar Sigal, Major Grubashushi Dillon, on trial at Red Fort (a fort in Delhi). Quite reversely, Indian newspapers largely reported, based on statements made by former INA prisoners of war, that the Indian National Army was not a puppet of Japan, but they were patriots fighting for the independence of India. The Indian Congress Party holding the different political position from Bose asked for the release of the National Army officers and Nehru himself appeared in court as a special defender for the defendants.

Fujiwara Iwaichi, who had endeavored for the foundation of the Indian National Army went over to India and testified before court. Besides, those concerned at that time also showed up to bear witness for the defendants. One of them said to the defendants, “If it would help make your verdict less severe for us to say that you were mere puppets of Japan, we will do so.” Hearing this, all the defendants got puzzled and angry and strongly protested, “We voluntarily joined the Indian National Army and fought solely for the Indian independence of our own will. If we are to be punished by death for our action, let it be. So, all of you, please, never make such false statement.” Fujiwara Iwaichi stated before court that all of the Indian National Army participated in the war of their own free will.”

The sensation caused among Indian people by the bravery of the Indian National Army directly developed into the nation-wide independence movement. During the ongoing trials, day after day, vehement demonstrations and general strikes supporting the Indian National Army erupted throughout India. On December 30, 1945, the court-martial judged the defendant three National Army officers to be guilty, but the verdict was not made public in fear of the public anger. On June 1, 1946, the execution of the sentence was immediately suspended, and the defendants were set free.

Britain, feeling humiliated by that situation, tried to continue the court-martial of the INA officers, which backfired and further escalated the independence movement and finally some in the army rose to action. In February 1946, Indian soldiers belonging to the British Navy rose and occupied several tens of vessels in Bombay, Karachi and Calcutta and pulled down the Union Flags. The British Air Force and the Army were also affected and amid ongoing general strikes and civilian upheavals, Britain was driven to dead end. In 1946, the then Prime Minister Attlee virtually recognized the independence of India and through ensuing negotiations, finally, on August 15, 1947, India became independent.

In the Battle of Imphal, called “the worst battle in history,” Japanese soldiers lost their lives and fell due to illness, injuries, and starvation, far outnumbering the casualties among the Indian National Army soldiers. Around 90,000 or 100,000 Japanese soldiers supposedly participated in the Battle of Imphal, and there were various accounts when it comes to the numbers of Japanese officers and soldiers killed in action, injured or missing. The exact numbers are unknown. Twelve thousand men are said to have returned home to Japan after the war. It is certain that tens of thousands of Japanese soldiers became victims of this battle. To Japan, the Battle of Imphal was the worst battle operation, with no rewarding results at the cost of the enormous human lives. One thing is certain. The Battle of Imphal paved the way to the Indian independence. Chandra Bose fell before he came to see the independence of his beloved country India. I do think it my duty to tell as many people as possible that the cooperation between the Indian National Army and the Japanese Army preciously brought by Chandra Bose and Prime Minister Tojo Hideki resulted in the independence of the Indian people.