Society for the Dissemination of Historical Fact


SDHF Newsletter No. 402 The Road to the Greater East Asian War Part 24, Chapter 7-2

Nakamura Akira, Dokkyo University Professor Emeritus
(English Translation: Society for the Dissemination of Historical Fact)
Part 24, Chapter 7: The Illusion of International Cooperation – 2

February 22, 2024

When the Washington Conference began in January 1921, Soviet Rusian troops invaded Outer Mongolia, ostensibly in pursuit of Whtie Russians. The Soviets manipulated their puppet organization, the Mongolian People’s Party, to form the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary government.

On November 5, 1921 the Soviet Russia and Outer Mongolia Concluded the Agreement concluded the Agreement Regarding the Establishment of Friendly Relations. According to that agreement, “[t]he People’s Government of Mongolia declares that it recognizes in respect of Russian citizens possessing in Mongolia plots of land or buildings the same rights of possession, lease and occupation of building plots, and that it will apply the same methods of exacting taxation, rents and other payments in the same proportions as are recognized or applied, or shall be recognized and applied, in respect of citizens of the most favored State.”

The Mongolians were granting the exact same privileges to the Soviet Russia saterization of Outer they had to Imperial Russia. The November 5 agreement was kept secret for a time. When it was made public in the spring of 1922, the Chinese Foreign Ministry sent a protest to the Soviets, which maintained that the Soviet government had broken the promises made to the Chinese government in a manifesto issued by Deputy Foreign Commissar Lev Karakhan, 1.e., that “all previous treaties made between Russian Government and China shall be bull and void, that the Soviet Government will unconditionally and forever return what has been forcibly seized from China by the former Imperial Russian Government and the Bourgeoisie.

Japan’s Siberian Expedition was practically coincidental with Soviet intrusion into Outer Mongolia. Though the objective of Japan’s mission in sending troops to Siberia was to prevent the infiltration of communist forces into the Far East, the US viewed it with jaundiced eye, and Japan soon became the target of international criticism. The Americans failed to comprehend the terrible significance of the invasion and communization of Outer Mongolia. They uttered not one word of criticism against the Soviets; o make the matter worse, they did not even attempt to check the Soviet menace.

Despite the fact that the Soviets satellited the Chinese territory Outer Mongolia only two years after manifesto was declared by Karakhan, Sun Wen decided to conduct “Kuomintang-Communist collaboration evaluation the Soviets’ diplomatic revolution policy. He was completely betrayed by the communist maneuver.


MOTEKI Hiromichi, Chairman
Society for the Dissemination of Historical Fact