Anti-Japanese networks devised by the United States, China and the Soviet Union that put Japan into a quagmire
By EZAKI Michio,
Anti-Japanese networks devised by the United States,
China and the Soviet Union that put Japan into a
EZAKI Michio, Senior Researcher at Japan Conference
Anti-Japanese propaganda drive staged in pre-war U.S.
After the Second Sino-Japanese War broke out in 1937, the Roosevelt Administration
of the United States accelerated its oppressive diplomacy toward Japan, resulting in the
attack on Pearl Harbor by the cornered Japanese. It is scarcely known in Japan how
anti-Japanese and China-friendly American public opinion was made at that time,
which pushed the U.S.’s oppressive diplomacy against Japan.
I intentionally use the expression “was made” because in pre-war America, just as is
the case today, wide and fanatical anti-Japanese propaganda campaigns were in full
swing, accusing the Japanese Army of atrocities it committed during the Second
Sino-Japanese War (the Sino-Japanese Incident).
It was What War Means edited by Harold J. Timperley, special correspondent to
China for the British Manchester Guardian, that was highly valued as source material
that verified the “Nanking Massacre”, cited as the most moving example of the
Japanese Army’s atrocities. What War Means was a propaganda book edited by
Timperley by the request of the Central Propaganda Department of the Chinese
Nationalist Party, according to the top-secret report titled Outline of Operations:
International Propaganda Office, Central Propaganda Department. This confidential
report was recently unearthed by Higashinakano Shudo, professor at Asia University.
Furthermore, Timperley himself acted as an advisor to the Central Propaganda
Department.１ While Timperley was overtly a special correspondent to China for the
British Manchester Guardian, covertly, he was a secret agent for the Chinese
In July 1938, when What War Means was published in New York, an anti-Japanese
organization was also founded at that time with the purpose of accusing the Japanese of
military aggression and urging the United States government to cut trade with Japan.
The organization was named “The American Committee for Non-Participation in
Japanese Aggression,” hereafter called the “American Committee”.
The Second Sino-Japanese War started in July 1937, triggered by the Marco Polo
Bridge Incident, which took place in the outskirts of Beijing. Though the Japanese
government initially held to the policy of not expanding the war any further, the
Japanese Army, fed up by being incessantly enticed by a provocative Chinese Army, was
forced to expand the front beyond Beijing to Shanghai, and then to Nanking.
Despite the fact that the war was in fact caused by provocation on the part of the
Chinese, the American Committee asserted: “The cause of the Sino-Japanese War lies in
the militarist Japan’s aggressive policy. It is the United States that largely provides the
Japanese Army with fuel and war supplies. To prevent the atrocious Japanese Army
from further invading China, the U.S. Government should act on the trade ban against
Japan,” in a booklet (60,000 copies) titled America’s Share in Japan’s War Guilt ２ and
published simultaneously with the establishment of the Committee.
Subsequently, on August 1, the Committee distributed 22,000 copies of a pamphlet
titled War Guilt to all of the members of Congress (both the Senate and the House of
Representatives), colleges and universities, Christian bodies, women’s organizations,
business associations, international relations societies, and labor unions across the
The American Committee conducted a far-reaching public relations drive, boasting
among its founders writer Helen Keller, who was popularly known as the “Miracle
Worker” with her “triple handicaps”. With such a prominent public figure, the
Committee successfully attracted much attention from the mass media.
The Chinese Nationalist Party’s Central Propaganda Department was behind the
One cannot help but wonder how the Committee obtained the money necessary to
cover expenses for printing and mailing 60,000 copies of the 80-page booklet as well as
20,000 copies of the pamphlet. Unlike the present day, with ubiquitous personal
computers, it would have taken a huge amount of desk work just to write mailing
addresses. It would have been impossible without strong organizational support.
Then how did the American Committee come to be established and what kind of
groups supported it?
Relating to the process of how the American Committee was established, readers are
advised to read a book entitled Maboroshi no Shin Chitsujo to Ajia Taiheiyo (Illusion of
New Order for Asia- Pacific) written by Ma Ziaohua (publisher: Sairyusha). According to
the book, the idea of this Committee was initially conceived by Harry Price, a former
professor at Yanjing (Beijing) University and his younger brother Frank Price, a famed
missionary stationed in China. Upon learning that eighty percent of the Japanese
Army’s fuel was being imported from the United States, the ex-professor consulted with
his missionary brother, who was in New York for a short vacation, and then they tried to
persuade their “China-expert” friends and acquaintances living in New York into
creating influential public opinion in the United States with the aim of supporting the
Chinese to fight against Japan and sanctions against the Japanese militarism.
To sum up, the Committee was reportedly contrived out of personal initiative.
However, Frank Price, then briefly in New York, was also a secret agent with the
position of Chief of Staff at the English-language Editorial Committee of the Chinese
Nationalist Party’s Central Propaganda Department, according to the afore-mentioned
top-secret document of the Nationalist Party unearthed by Professor Higashinakano.
The American Committee might have been part of the operations conducted by the
Chinese Nationalist Party to get America on the Chinese side. With this in mind, the
list of the committee’s founders was reexamined and revealed one other member of the
Chinese Nationalist Party’s Propaganda Department. Namely, Earl Leaf, former special
correspondent to China for the UP News Agency. According to the autobiography of
Ceng Xubai, manager of the International Propaganda Office, Leaf was in charge of the
New York office of the Transpacific News Service, which was a propaganda machine of
the Nationalist Party.３
Surprisingly, George Fitch was also among the founders, who was a chief staff
member at the Chinese YMCA (Protestant Young Men’s Christian Association). Fitch
was one of the authors of the aforementioned What War Means edited by Timperley. At
the beginning of 1938, Fitch was supposedly in Nanking during its occupation by the
Japanese Army. How, then, was it possible for Fitch’s name to be listed among the
founders of the American Committee in New York?
Fortunately, the translations of letters written by Timperley, editor of What War
Means, are included in Nankin Jiken Shiryoshu:(1) Amerika Kankei Shiryo Hen
(Nanking Incident Source Material, Vol.1: American References), edited by Nankin
Jiken Chosa Kenkyukai Hen (Nanking Incident Research Group). According to the
letters, it was Timperley’s idea, as an advisor to the Chinese Nationalist Party’s Central
Propaganda Department, to have Fitch spread propaganda alleging atrocities
committed by the Japanese Army in then-occupied Nanking. Fitch escaped from
Nanking and flew from Shanghai to be in the United States in April.
Fitch was instructed by Timperley to visit America, and it was most likely that Fitch
met Price, another secret agent for China, in New York and joined in the consultation
over the establishment of the American Committee.
Benefactor of Christianity, Chiang Kai-shek
Among the founders of the American Committee, another YMCA staff member listed
besides Fitch was Margaret Falsis of the YMCA North American Federation. Why was
the YMCA so involved, with its vast organizational power in European and American
Christian societies? Further examination has revealed that, behind the scenes, the
YMCA and Chiang Kai-shek’s Chinese Nationalist Government were closely linked
The story goes back to the Treaty of Tianjin of 1858. Guaranteed missions in China
by the treaty, European and American Christian Missions sent one missionary after
another to China.４
In particular, the YMCA North American Federation, established in 1864, placed
much emphasis on missions in China. How the YMCA clearly differed from other
mission groups was that wherever they went for missions, they built assembly halls
instead of churches and stationed full-time workers ( called “work secretaries”) to
manage and run those halls, where a wide range of educational and medical service
activities were conducted, such as teaching English to the local youths.
The first YMCA assembly hall in China was built in Tianjin in 1897. By 1924, there
were 313 Chinese work secretaries employed. Besides the Chinese staff, nearly 90
Americans were sent to China from the North American YMCA, and Fitch was one of
In close cooperation with the overwhelmingly influential YMCA in China, various
Protestant groups founded colleges and universities in rapid succession. As of 1916,
there were 24 universities in China, of which 14 were Christian private universities
founded and run by Christian Missions.
However, in 1923, the Chinese Nationalist Party shifted to a united front coalition
with the Chinese Communist Party, and the latter began to organize students and
workers, loudly advocating xenophobic nationalism. As a result, the Christian
universities were hit hard, where students held demonstrations and strikes almost daily,
demanding abolition of the required religious education curriculum and restraint of
YMCA activities. The tumult led to a drop of 30 percent in the number of students
entering the Christian universities in 1927, and some universities even faced the grave
possibility of closing down.
It was Chiang Kai-shek who saved the Christian universities from the peril of radical
student movements. As strongholds for missions, those universities were established,
with huge amounts of money and human resources. The “All-China Student Unions”,
which led the student movements, was secretly maneuvered by the Chinese Communist
Party, with such masterminds as Zhou Enlai, called the ‘hawk of the Stalin group’.
Fearing at the time that the Nationalist Party might be taken over by the Communists,
Chiang Kai-shek resolutely suppressed the Communists in Shanghai in April 1927
(Coup d’etat of April 12) and broke the Nationalist-Communist alliance in July. That
abruptly ended the stormy student movements once and for all.
Simultaneously, Chiang Kai-shek began the Northern Expedition to subdue warlords
that were rampant throughout the country in July 1926. In June 1928, he occupied
Beijing and had almost unified all of China. Moreover, Chiang Kai-shek remarried Song
Meiling, a Christian, in December 1927, and after becoming head of the Nationalist
Government in Nanking, he was baptized as a Christian in October 1930.
Thus, American Christian societies like the YMCA highly appreciated Christian
Chiang Kai-shek, engaged in the difficult task of unifying warlord-rampant China, cited
him as China’s George Washington and Christian benefactor, and ardently supported
The “Chiang Kai-shek – YMCA” Network
Consequently, to American Christians such as YMCA members, the second
Sino-Japanese War naturally meant the struggle in China of Chiang Kai-shek, the
“heroic supporter of Christianization” against the “heathen Japanese.” Fully aware of
this psychology, Chiang Kai-shek immediately sent Wang Zhengting as an ambassador
to the United States. Wang was a former Chinese YMCA head of secretaries and later
Foreign Minister. One can easily imagine that Ambassador Wang made full use of his
YMCA connection in maneuvering the United States toward supporting China.
The effects of sending Wang to the U.S. were seen in three spheres.
First, the aforementioned American Committee was established with the support of
the YMCA North American Federation. Most likely, detailed consultations over the
establishment of the committee were repeatedly held among Ambassador Wang, Fitch,
and secret agents Price and Leaf from the Chinese Nationalist Party’s Central
Second, under the leadership of J.R. Mott, president of the YMCA World Federation,
three international mission institutes, having close relationships with China,
established a national campaign organization called “The Church Committee for China
Relief (CCCR)” in July 1938, at the same time of the establishment of the American
Committee. The CCCR launched relief activities for China.
Former President of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce H. Sylvie became chairman of
the CCCR, with Mott as deputy chairman, and the CCCR came to have tremendous
political influence over 125,000 Protestant churches and nearly as many related mission
As a probable consequence, S. Hornbeck, who was an old acquaintance of Ambassador
Wang Zhengting and an advisor to the U.S. Secretary of State, asserted: “To change the
isolationist air prevailing in American society and to boost public interest in Asian
issues, we should carry out a propaganda campaign,” and secretly supported the
establishment of the American Committee. Hornbeck also tried to convince his boss,
Secretary of State Hull, telling him: “If China and others should fail to stop Japanese
aggression, the United States and Japan will eventually clash in the arena of
international politics and sooner or later will have to decisively confront each other.”
This might explain the following turn of event. President Roosevelt, who had
previously held a firm neutral position toward the Sino-Japanese War, now, with the
intention of checking Japan, decided to grant a $25 million lease to the Chinese
Nationalist Government in December and steered toward supporting China. As
mentioned previously, there were 125,000 churches under the CCCR umbrella, which,
in terms of church members, would amount to tens of millions of potential voters. That
was a figure President Roosevelt could hardly afford to ignore, for the President had to
keep winning elections, no matter what.
Furthermore, simultaneously that December, the American Committee became even
more powerful. Roger Greene, former American consul general stationed in Hankou,
China, was appointed chairman of the American Committee, and former Secretary of
State Stimson, a renowned hard-liner toward Japan, had also became its honorary
The following year, on January 19, 1939, these appointments were officially
announced, and the next day, Song Ziwen, Chiang Kai-shek’s brother-in-law, sent a
congratulatory telegram to honorary chairman Stimson on behalf of the Chinese
Nationalist Government. The telegram read to the effect of: the establishment of the
American Committee is an epoch-making event in the efforts to prevent Japan’s
aggression against China, and trade sanctions against Japan mean a victory to China
as well as heralding peace and justice to the world. The telegram showed that the
Chinese Nationalist Party had great expectations of the American Committee.
Rockefeller Foundation backs IPR becoming more anti-Japanese
The third influence by the YMCA is seen in the decision made by the IPR ( Institute of
Pacific Relations), a world-leading think tank on Asia-Pacific issues, to publish the
think tank’s Inquiry Series criticizing Japanese aggression in reference to the
In February 1938, barely two months after the surrender of Nanking, IPR Secretary
General Edward Carter (former secretary at the YMCA India) made the suggestion to
local IPR branches that a full inquiry into the Far East conflict be made. Taken aback
by this plan, the Japanese branch expressed strong objection, already being alerted of
the anti-Japanese, China-friendly stance of the IPR headquarters. Notwithstanding the
Japanese protest, Secretary General Carter kept consultations with other IPR branches
in respective countries, and in December 1938, the IPR finally decided to publish its
This decision was backed by the Rockefeller Foundation, which had been financing
the IPR to work on the Inquiry Series. The fact is that Jerome Greene, IPR director
general, was the brother of Roger Greene, who was, in turn, director of the Rockefeller
Foundation and director general of the American Committee.
The IPR was initially established as a consequence of the Pan-Pacific YMCA
Conference held in Hawaii in July 1925 by the YMCA North American Federation to
discuss the current situation, assembling the work secretaries who were stationed in
various parts of Asia. Later, the IPR also began to recruit outside experts besides YMCA
people. However, as the IPR secretary general from the YMCA India indicates, the core
of the IPR was invariably occupied by those concerned with the YMCA.
The key contributor to the establishment of the IPR was J.R. Mott, then president of
the YMCA North American Federation, who later became deputy chairman of the CCCR
and president of the YMCA World Federation.
Incidentally, the Australian delegate who participated in consultations concerning the
IPR Inquiry Series was none other than Timperley, a secret agent for the Chinese
Nationalist Party’s Propaganda Department. After having compiled What War Means,
Timperley went to the United States, where he engaged in anti-Japanese maneuvering
operations for the IPR.
Subsequently, the IPR published one booklet after another, decrying Japan’s
aggression against China, which not only tremendously influenced foreign policies of
various countries in Europe as well as America, but also determined the framework of
the American occupation policy against Japan.
During the war, the IPR distributed huge volumes of propaganda pamphlets, urging
“Know Your Enemy Japan,” to armies and governments, thus playing a perfect role in
permeating the anti-Japanese prejudice and branding Japan as a military-fascist state.
Moreover, the IPR also cooperated in the production of the propaganda film titled
Know Your Enemy Japan, directed by Frank Capra. The film spitefully depicts such
matters as the Tanaka Memorandum, which “testified” to Japan’s ambition to conquer
the world, the Nanking Massacre, and brainwashing by means of nationalist Shinto.
The film served as the source for prosecuting the Nanking Massacre at the Tokyo Trials.
Real face of the anti-Japanese propaganda uncovered by top-secret Ministry of Foreign
As mentioned so far, behind the American Committee, with former Secretary of State
Stimson as its honorary chairman, were the Chinese Nationalist Party secret agents
and the “YMCA -IPR” network.
Moreover, recently-disclosed top-secret Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan
documents at that time revealed that there was yet another group manipulating the
network. This was a group of men secretly working for Communist Party U.S.A..
Since 2002, the Japan Center for Asian Historical Records has been disclosing on the
Internet top-secret documents of the time, which are housed in the National Archives of
Japan, the Diplomatic Record Office of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, and the
Military Archives of the National Institute for Defense Studies. Among them is a
confidential document dated July 20, 1938, and labeled Kimitsu Daigohyakurokujugo
(Top-secret, No.560):Tochiho ni Okeru Shinagawa Senden ni Kansuru Ken (Re:
Propaganda conducted by the Chinese here in this area), which was sent to Foreign
Minister Ugaki Kazushige by Consul General Wakasugi Kaname in New York.７
In Top-secret No. 560, the following analyses were made:
1) Regarding anti-Japanese propaganda in the United States, there are roughly three
types of promoters: the Chinese Nationalist Party, Christian/humanitarian groups,
and the American Communist Party. They keep in touch with each other.
2) The “anti-fascism, pro-democracy” goal upheld by the Communists has become the
guiding principle for various groups.
3) The most radical attackers of Japan in the United States are the American
Communist Party and its front organizations. They aim to worsen the relationship
between Japan and the United States, and directly support and encourage the
Chinese to maintain their resistance for as long as possible, and, thus, indirectly
weaken Japan’s pressure against the Soviet Union.
4) Furthermore, under cover of these front organizations, the Communists, while
disguising their true identity, can easily mingle among various sections of American
society and have succeeded in building up great influence.
Following these analyses, the document explains the front organizations of the
American Communist Party.
5) The American League for Peace and Democracy acts in accordance with the guiding
policy of the U.S. Communist Party. The league is a huge organization with
branches in 109 cities in 24 states across the U.S., covering 2,000 groups and 3
million members. Under this league, the Conference for China Relief was
established and, with guidance by Phillip Jaffe, they conduct the most energetic
activities, organizing anti-Japanese boycotts and strikes to protest Japanese
aggression against China, and lobbying Congressmen for a ban on Japanese trade.
6) The Institute of Pacific Relations (IPR) is recognized to have a close relationship
with the Communist Party. Particularly, F.V. Field, central figure of the IPR U.S.
Branch, is editorial manager of Amerasia magazine, whose editor-in-chief is Jaffe,
mastermind of the American League for Peace and Democracy. The editorial
department of the magazine and the IPR are located in the same building. [In
addition, the Japanese delegate attending the IPR International General Assembly
for 1936 was Ozaki Hotsumi of the Sorge group.]
7) The American Friends of the Chinese People was established in 1933, as an
anti-Japanese propaganda organ under the auspices of the American Communist
Party, but at present it serves as a training center for activists participating in
anti-Japanese actions. Maxwell Stewart (editor of The Nation) is the president.
Subsequently, another top-secret M.O.F.A. document, dated August 18 Kimitsu
Dairoppyakunanajunanago (Top-secret No. 677), reports, in reference to the
establishment of the American Committee, as follows.８
1) The American Committee was established as a front organization of the
American Communist Party and the American League for Peace and Democracy.
Superficially, it pretends not to have anything to do with the Communist Party,
to win those who have anti-Communist ideas over to their side.
2) The Committee is nominal. (The truth is that the real identity of the American
Committee is the American League for Peace and Democracy.)
How should one evaluate these analyses?
First, Jaffe, leader of the American League for Peace and Democracy, and Stewart,
president of American Friends of the Chinese People, both of whom were referred to as
Communists, were in fact among the founders of the American Committee.
Moreover, China Today, organ of American Friends of the Chinese People, which was
identified as a front organization of the U.S. Communist Party by Top-secret Document
No.560, had T.A. Bisson (research associate at the Foreign Policy Association) as a
member of its editorial committee. Bisson was also listed among the founders of the
It was the Comintern that was pulling strings after all
If the analyses made by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan are right, then it
turns out that the American Committee was an affiliate of the American League for
Peace and Democracy and, furthermore, it was controlled from behind the scenes by
Communist “secret agents” like Jaffe.
One of the M.O.F.A.’s analyses, relating to the assertion that the American League for
Peace and Democracy was a front organization of the Communist Party U.S.A., has
been verified by top-secret documents of the former Soviet Union.
Since 1992, the Russian Yeltsin Administration has disclosed the top-secret
documents of the former Soviet Union at the Center for Preservation and Study of
Russian Contemporary Historical Records. The Secret World of American Communism,
a book written by Harvey Klehr based on the study of those confidential, old Soviet
documents, asserts that the American League against War and Fascism, the original
organization of the American League for Peace and Democracy, was a group that was
dominated by Communists.９
For that matter, it is doubtful whether people like ex-Secretary of State Stimson, who
had accepted the honorary chair of the American Committee, Advisor to the Secretary of
State Hornbeck, who indirectly supported the Committee, and Professor Price and Fitch
from the YMCA, both of whom had been working for the Chinese Nationalist Party,
were at all aware of the fact that the Communist Party U.S.A. was behind them.
Perhaps all they knew about Stewart, Bisson and Jaffe, who were also listed among the
founders, was that these three were merely another group of intellectuals angry at
fascism and Japanese “aggression” against China.
At any rate, Amerasia, whose editor-in-chief was Jaffe, was generally perceived as a
magazine specializing in Asian affairs when it was first published. So, Hornbeck, then
Chief of the Bureau of Far Eastern Affairs of the U.S. Department of State (a very
influential position), even contributed to the magazine’s first issue (March, 1936) “in a
personal capacity.” Incidentally, in June 1945, the editorial department of Amerasia,
including Jaffe, was exposed as having illegally obtaining top-secret U.S. government
The Communist Party’s deception was perfectly elaborate to the extent that it should
be admired. However, it was revealed that, unlike Japan, the American public under
the Roosevelt Administration was alarmingly indifferent to the potential threats of the
Soviet Union and the Communist Party.
It was not until late 1939 that the American government, or specifically the FBI,
tightened their surveillance and monitoring of the American Communist Party. Still, it
was only in 1946, after World War II ended, that the American government finally
obtained evidence that the Communist Party U.S.A. had been in charge of maneuvering
intelligence for the Comintern. This was done by successfully wire-tapping and decoding
encrypted messages of Soviet intelligence.
The decrypted intelligence was published in The Venona Secret in 1995. According to
the book, Jaffe, a leading figure in anti-Japanese propaganda activities, Bisson, and
Field of the IPR U.S. Branch were secret agents working for the Comintern.
Jaffe, in particular, who was practically steering the American Committee as the
leader of the American League for Peace and Democracy, was a friend of Earl Browder,
secretary general of the American Communist Party.１０ Thus, the analyses made at
that time by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs have proved to be mostly correct.
The anti-Japanese United Pacific Front was perfected
Evidence does exist that the Comintern instructed the American Communist Party on
how to effectively carry out anti-Japanese propaganda operations.
On December 25, 1937, immediately after Nanking fell, the Chinese Communist
Party held a Central Committee meeting and announced the “Declaration of the
Chinese Communist Party on the Current Situation”, urging the worldwide staging of
anti-Japanese propaganda campaigns.
Subsequently, in May 1938, the Comintern sent out the following orders to various
international branches (Communist Parties in respective countries and labor unions,
1) Further promote international campaigns to support China and spread
propaganda decrying the sinful Japanese and praising the heroic Chinese.
2) Hold anti-Japanese rallies and demonstrations more frequently.
3) Organize and expand such activities as to represent the Chinese people’s
animosity toward Japan (boycotting Japanese products and refusing port labor to
unload Japanese products and load war supplies for Japan).１１
It was only three months after these instructions were sent that the American
Committee was established through developing the American League for Peace and
Democracy for the purpose of spreading “guilty Japanese” propaganda and urging
Ultimately, those secret agents working for the American Communist Party and the
Chinese Nationalist Party with such superficial titles as former missionary, scholar and
magazine editor, all devotedly conducted anti-Japanese propaganda activities, resulting
in an ever-worsening hostile public opinion toward Japan. With the support of this
anti-Japanese and pro-Chinese public opinion, President Roosevelt and Secretary of
War Stimson promoted, in tandem, more rigorous, oppressive diplomacy toward Japan,
which culminated in 1941 in a war between Japan and the United States.
On December 9, two days after Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, the Chinese Communist
Party, deciding that the anti-Japanese United Pacific Front was completed by the
outbreak of war between Japan and the United States, announced China’s support for
the United States and Great Britain entering war against Japan.
Lenin formed the Communist International (Comintern) in 1919, with the purpose of
converting the world to Communism, and made a speech in 1920 to the following effect:
In today’s capitalist world, the primary conflict we should exploit is the relationship
between Japan and the United States, and our practical policy issue as Communists is
to exploit this mutual animosity brewing between the two countries and have them
bitterly confront each other. Then will arise a new state of affairs.１２
As early as twenty-five years prior to the actual attack on Pearl Harbor, the Soviet
Union and the Comintern had been secretly plotting in various countries of the world
with a grand plan to build-up an anti-Japanese united Pacific front, whereby they
intended to use America as a tool to strike at Japan; they finally achieved that goal.
Presently in Japan, concerning the Yasukuni Shrine problem, many people are asking
again who was really responsible for the War. These arguments should be impartially
based on the testimonies revealed in various top-secret documents that have been
disclosed one after another by the former Soviet Union, the United States, the Chinese
Nationalist Party and Japan. We should strictly refrain from becoming so intellectually
lazy as to fall back on conventional views.
At the present, as well as in the past, Japan’s course is to be decided in the context of
relations with other countries of the world. Therefore, such a narrow-minded perception,
as to lay all of the blame of the War on the Japanese leaders at that time, will never
enable us to see the true history.
In order to survive in this international community, still rife with secret maneuvering
and political propaganda, we must reexamine what really happened behind the scenes
during the War, to the best of our intellectual capacity, taking into consideration all of
those source materials newly discovered in various parts of the world.
The Church Committee for China Relief (CCCR)
Chairman: H.Sylvie (former President, U.S. Chamber of Commerce)
Deputy Chairman: J.R.Mott (President, YMCA World Federation)
Margaret Falsis (YMCA North American Federation)
George Fitch (Secretary, YMCA China)
President F. D. Roosevelt
S. Hornbeck (Advisor to Secretary of
Chinese Nationalist Government
Head of State: Chiang Kai-shek
Ambassador to U.S.: Wang Zhengting
(former Chinese YMCA head of staff)
Central Propaganda Department, Chinese Nationalist Party
Advisor: H.J.Timperley (correspondent, British Manchester
International Propaganda Office, English Editorial
Committee, Chief: Frank Price (missionary in China)
New York Office chief, Transpacific News Service: Earl Leaf
(former UP correspondent to China)
Institute of Pacific Relations (IPR)
Director General: Jerome Greene (director, Rockefeller
Secretary General: Edward Carter (ex-secretary YMCA India)
Editor-in-chief of Pacific Affairs: Owen Lattimore
IPR American Branch
Secretariat : F.V. Field
IPR Australian Branch
H.J. Timperley (correspondent, British Manchester Guardian)
American Committee for Non-Participation in Japanese Aggression
Established in New York, in 1938
Honorary Chairman: Henry Stimson (ex- Secretary of State)
Director General: Roger Greene (ex-consul general in Hankou)
Secretary General: Harry Price (ex-professor,Yanjing University)
Founders: Margaret Falsis (YMCA North American Federation),
Frank Price (missionary in China), Earl Leaf (ex-UP correspondent to
China), George Fitch (secretary, YMCA China), Helen Keller (writer),
Maxwell Stewart (editor-in-chief The Nature), Phillip Jaffe (editor,
Amerasia),T.A.Bisson (researcher, Foreign Policy Association)and
American League for Peace and Democracy
Branches in 109 cities in 24 states
2000 groups, 3 million members
Leader: Phillip Jaffe (editor, Amerasia)
Director: F.V.Field( IPR America)
Editor-in-chief: Phillip Jaffe
Editor: T.A.Bisson (FPA)
American Friends of the Chinese People
President: Maxwell Stewart (editor, The Nation)
Editor-in-chief, China Today : Phillip Jaffe
Editorial committee: T.A.Bisson , F.V. Field
U.S. Communist Party
Chinese Communist Party
In charge of intelligence:
1) Underlined names indicate Communist or suspected Communist
2) Groups inside the wave-lined boxes refer to those of the Chinese Nationalist Party. Those in broken-lined
boxes are of the Comintern /U.S. Communist Party.
3) Shaded names indicate those who were referred to as concerned with the Comintern in The Venona Secret.
(Source:Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secret, Regnery Publishing, Inc., 2000)
4) Arrows indicate “supporting/ directing,” and double-lines indicate “cooperation”.
The Anti-Japanese Network in the United States As of 1938
１ Higashinakano Shudo, Nankin Kokuminto Gokuhi Bunsho Kara Yomitoku [The
Nanking Incident: Reading from the Top-secret Nationalist Party Documents].
２ The American Committee for Non-Participation in Japanese Aggression, America’s
Share in Japan’s War Guilt.
３ Kitamura Minoru, The Politics of Nanjing; An Impartial Investigation, (New York:
University Press of America, Inc. 2007).
４ Regarding the YMCA and Christian activities in China, the following books were
referred to: Kimoto Mosaburo, YMCA Shi Noto [Note on the YMCA History]; Sato Naoko,
Kaihomae Chugoku ni okeru Kyoikuken Kaishu Undo to Misshonkei Daigaku
[Movement to Recover Education Right in pre-liberated China and Missionary
Universities] (Nippon no Kyoikushigaku Dainijugoshu [Vol.25:Study of Japanese
Educational History]; John Artwarp MacMalley (original author) and Arthur Waldron,
How the Peace Was Lost.
５ JACAR (the Japan Center for Asian Historical Records, the National Archives of
Japan) Ref.B02030591100 Zai Nyuyok Soryojikan Showa Juninen Juichigatsu
Nijushichinichi kara Showa Jusannen Kugatsu Juyokka Shinagawa Senden Kankei
Daiikkan (Gaimusho Gaiko Shiryokan) [The Japanese Consulate General in New York,
dated from November 27, 1937 to September 14, 1938 Vol.1 Chinese Propaganda
References (The Diplomatic Record Office of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan)].
６ Regarding IPR, refer to the following books. Yamaoka Michio, Taiheiyo Mondai
Chosakai no Kenkyu [Study on the Institute of Pacific Relations]. Yui Daizaburo,
Mikan no Senryo Kaikaku [Uncompleted Occupation Reform].
７ See 5.
８ See 5.
９ H. Klehr, J.E. Haynes, and F.I. Fuillesov, The Secret World of American Communism.
１０ Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel. The Venona Secret.
１１ Lenin, On Culture, Literature and Art (Vol.1).
１２ Nakayasu Yosaku, Saikin Shina Kyosantoshi [Recent History of the Chinese